Sociology Vocabulary Table

Social Stratification Vocabulary List
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Vocabulary Test: Fri, April 27


Stratification
Life Chances
Socioeconomic Status
Social Mobility
Max Weber
Wealth
Power
Prestige
Stratification Systems
Slavery
Caste
Class (Open)
U.S. Class Structure
Upper
Upper Middle
Lower Middle
Working Class
Working Poor
Lower Class



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Conformity, Deviance, Crime & Punishment Vocabulary List
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Vocabulary Test: Fri, May 11


Conformity
Groupthink
Bureaucratic Organization
Hierarchy

Deviance
Social Control
Crime
Juvenile Delinquency
Strain Theory
Illegitimate Opportunity structures
Social Bond Theory
Differential Association Theory
Labeling Theory
Primary Deviance
Secondary Deviance
Criminology

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Social Inequality & Discrimination Vocabulary List
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Vocabulary Test: Fri, May 25


The "Three Worlds" Approach
The "Three Incomes" Approach
Poverty
Life Expectancy
Literacy
Modernization Theory
Dependency Theory
World Systems Theory
The New Intl. Division of Labor Theory

Race vs. Ethnicity
Prejudice
Stereotypes
Racism
Discrimination
Genocide
Assimilation
Ethnic Pluralism
Sex vs. Gender

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Vocabulary Words
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Stratification Vocabulary Words

 

Click Here for a LARGER VISUAL LOOK of the vocabulary below
 
Stratification "Social stratification lies at the core of society and of the discipline of sociology." Stratification is a social division of individuals into various hierarchies of wealth, status and power.
Life Chances "Life chances are the opportunities everyone has to improve their life."  
Socioeconomic Status

"Higher education may be the best Socio-Economic Status predictor of good health."

  An individual's or group's position in a society based on social and economic factors.
Social Mobility

"There's not a lot of opportunities up here for social mobility. I mean, you can either become a hockey player or take up a life of crime. And I have weak ankles, so there you go."

- Roadkill (Russel)


At Columbia University, the King of Education promises upward social mobility...
When people go from one level in the stratification system to another level. People moving up and down in their class. From poor to rich or rich to poor.
Max Weber

A quote by Max Weber:

"The fate of our times is characterized by rationalization and intellectualization, and, above all, by the disenchantment of the world."

  Max Weber recognized the importance of economic conditions in producing inequality and conflict in society, but added power and prestige as other sources of unequal conditions.
Wealth

"Wealth is the product of man's capacity to think."

-Ayn Rand

  Wealth is a mixture of money, cars, and all personal items combined to give you an overall place in society.
Power

"Power is not only what you have but what the enemy thinks you have."

-Saul Alinsky

  The ability of people and/or groups to achieve their goals despite being opposed by others; having authority over others.
Prestige

"What gives the artist real prestige is his imitators."

-Igor Stravinsky

  The power to impress or influence based on their reputation of high achievement and character.
Stratification Systems   A Stratification system is a system in which people are grouped by their socio-economic status.
Slavery

"I didn't know I was a slave until I found out I couldn't do the things I wanted."

-Frederick Douglass

When people are owned by other people.
Caste

"Caste and estate seem to have been forgotten; all are engaged in a common business, full of similar risks, and rewarded by a similar wage."

-Patrick MacGill

Your place in society based on how much money you have and the value of your belongings.

Whatever caste you are born into you will die in.

Class (Open)

"All mankind is divided into three classes: those that are immovable, those that are moveable, and those that move."

-Arabian Proverb

  The overall standing of a person, dictated by society. Some factors considered in this are status, roles, socioeconomic status, interests, and ways of life. Also judged are one's age religion, body type, health, disability, occupation, physical attributes, ethnicity, wealth, and location.
U.S. Class Structure   The arrangement of all the various classes into a vertical hierarchy.
Upper Class "Evolution is what it is: the upper classes have always died out, it's one of the most charming things about them."
This is a family business called Upper Class, LLC: "Upper class services for the upper class"
 
Upper Middle  
Advanced education is one of the most distinguishing features of the upper middle class.
People with a higher education who have a better paying job, such as a lawyer, dentist, or physician.
Lower Middle

"It's a bird, it's a plane, it's a lower-middle class family."

-quote from the Family Guy

 
Working Class

"The political solidarity of the working class means the death of despotism, the birth of freedom, and the sunrise of civilization."

- Eugene V. Debs

Marx puts people who work for money in order to survive in the working class.
Working Poor      
Lower Class

"The incognito of lower class employment is an effective cloak for any dagger one might wish to hide."

-Margaret Cho

People that have less than most and what the world today considers decent. People that don't make as much and have less extras (e.g. phones, TV, etc), and who probably lack a decent education.
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Conformity, Deviance, Crime & Punishment Vocabulary

 

Click Here for a LARGER VISUAL LOOK of the vocabulary below
 
Conformity

"Conformity is the jailer of freedom and the enemy of growth."

-John F. Kennedy


When a person changes the way he/she thinks, acts, or views things in order to fit in with another group.
Groupthink "During Groupthink, members of the group avoid promoting viewpoints outside the comfort zone of consensus thinking."

"All those in favor say 'Aye.'" (They say 'Aye' even though they are thinking to themselves this is a horrible idea!)

When people solve problems as a group, but they completely forget about their own creativity and instead conform to what they think the group wants.
Bureaucratic Organization

"Bureaucracy is the death of all sound work."

-Albert Einstein

A way of organizing businesses based on type of work and chain of command to make businesses more efficient.
Hierarchy  

A group of people or things arranged in higher and lower levels.
Deviance

"Without deviation from the norm, progress is not possible."

-Frank Zappa

  Anything bad that you do and it gets you in trouble with people at school, at home, and/or in the community.
Social Control

"Religion is just social control."

-Emile Durkheim

When the group tells you what you can and cannot do, directly or indirectly.
Crime "Outside of the killings, Washington D.C. has one of the lowest crime rates in the country."
Breaking the law and being punished for it.
Juvenile Delinquency

“Juvenile delinquency would disappear if kids followed their parent's advice instead of their example”

Laws broken by a child or children under 14 years old.
Strain Theory

Five modes of adapting to strain caused by the restricted access to socially approved goals and means are:
1. conformity
2. innovation
3. ritualism
4. retreatism
5. rebellion

 
Illegitimate Opportunity structures   For people who feel culture unfairly blocks them from getting what they want legitimately, they resort to illegitimate means, such as shoplifting.
Social Bond Theory      
Differential Association Theory "Differential group organization as an explanation of various crime rates (e.g. delinquency rate is largely related to the rental value of houses) is consistent with the differential association theory."   States that criminal behavior is learned AKA you learn to be bad from the people you hang out with.
Labeling Theory "The deviant is one to whom that label has successfully been applied; deviant behavior is behavior that people so label."    
Primary Deviance Steps to becoming a criminal:
  1. Primary deviation.
  2. Social penalties.
  3. Secondary deviation.
  4. Stronger penalties.
  5. Further deviation with resentment and hostility towards punishers.
  6. Community stigmatizes the deviant as a criminal. Tolerance threshold passed.
  7. Strengthening of deviant conduct because of stigmatizing penalties.
  8. Acceptance as role of deviant or criminal actor.
   
Secondary Deviance  
Criminology

 

"Criminology 101... finding the best donuts in America."

-Ha Ha, Just Kidding...

Criminology is a branch of sociology that specifically studies crimes and criminals.

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Vocabulary Words
Use It In A Wise Quote
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Best Definition
in your own words
Social Inequality & Discrimination
Vocabulary

 

Click Here for a LARGER VISUAL LOOK of the vocabulary below
 
The "Three Worlds" Approach    
The "Three Incomes" Approach    
Poverty

"Poverty is the worst form of violence."

-Mahatma Gandhi


Having little or no money, goods, or support.
Life Expectancy

"Life expectancy would grow by leaps and bounds if green vegetables smelled as good as bacon."

-Doug Larson

 
Literacy

"You teach a child to read, and he or her will be able to pass a literacy test."

-George W. Bush

The ability to read and write.
Modernization Theory "In my opinion development goes hand in hand with modernization." The social change over time in the society from the changing levels of technology and occupations.
Dependency Theory   Poverty can be explained by the fact that poor countries are dependent on rich countries, even though the rich countries exploit them.
World Systems Theory "World Systems analysis is not a theory, but an approach to social analysis and social change developed principally by Immanuel Wallerstein." An approach which analyzes societies in terms of their position within a global system of economic and political power.
The New Intl. Division of Labor Theory     Products and goods are split into different groups and transported to different areas in which it is the cheapest for the company in terms of capital & labor costs.
Race vs. Ethnicity

"Race and ethnicity have often colored success and caused friends to morph into haters, calling you out for forgetting where you came from."

-Ursula Watson, Detroit News

  Race is a social construct and ethnicity is a way to categorize people by customs, belief, and color.
Prejudice

"Never try to reason the prejudice out of a man. It was not reasoned into him, and cannot be reasoned out."

-Sydney Smith

 
Stereotypes

"The whole idea of a sterotype is to simplify. Instead of going throught the problem of all this great diversity - that it's this or maybe that - you have just one large statement: 'it is this'."

-Chinua Achebe

  When you assume something about a person because of the way they look, think, or act based on your previous experience of people who looked, thought, or acted similarly.
Racism

"Racism is man's gravest threat to man - the maximum of hatred for a minimum of reason."

-Abraham J. Heschels

Hatred of another race or the belief that some races - or your own race- is more important than others.
Discrimination

"Prejudice and discrimination are negative manifestations of integrative power. Instead of bringing or holding people together, prejudice and discrimination push them apart."

-Conflict Research Consortium, Univ. of Colorado

Treating people unfairly because of the way they look, think, or act.
Genocide

"Denying that genocide took place when there are recorded accounts of barbarity and ethnic violence is simply proving that barbarity and stupidity still exist today."

 

The systematic killing of a people.

The killing of people by a government because of race, language, religion, beliefs, etc.

Assimilation

"Adaptability is not imitation. It means power of resistance and assimilation."

-Mohandas Gandhi

When people of different backgrounds start to see themselves as a common family.

~or~

A process sometimes forced upon one group of people to help them conform and be obedient to another group of people.

Ethnic Pluralism

"Ethnic Pluralism is inconsistent with America's democratic ideas."

-Orlando Patterson says this is what Stephen Steinberg is saying...

vs.

"There is a fundamental tension between pluralism and democracy."

-This is what Stephen Steinberg actually said in his book

"I think we're losing our sense of humor instead of being able to relax and laugh at ourselves. I don't care whether it's ethnicity, age, sexual orientation, or whose ax is being gored."

-Betty White

Multiple people living together with different and conflicting values.
Sex vs.
Gender

"A study in the Washington Post says that women have better verbal skills than men. I just want to say to the authors of that study: 'Duh!'"

-Conan O'Brien

A person's sex is either male or female based on reproductive organs, whereas gender is one's sexual identity in relation to society or culture.

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